The most impressive Roman remains in Germany can be found in Trier, the oldest German city.
These include the Porta Nigra, the largest Roman city gate north of the Alps, and the Trier Amphitheatre. Charlemagne is often associated with France, but his realm was vast; his capital was in Aix la Chapelle, known today in German as Aachen.
The largest country in Central Europe and most populous EU state is Germany (German: Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland).
It's bordered to the east by the Czech Republic and Poland, to the north by Denmark, to the west by Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France and to the south by Austria and Switzerland.
Luther would go on to translate the Bible into a Central German vernacular at the Wartburg, doing much to standardize German and ultimately exclude northern dialects as "Low German" or "Dutch".
The Holy Empire became split between Catholics and several branches of Protestants, while regional powers emerged from the more unified territories of Catholic Bavaria and Protestant Saxony and Brandenburg (later known as Prussia).
Sections of the raised bank can still be seen and walked along.
However, in Roman times the Limes were anything but a rigid border and trade and occasional Roman military expeditions influenced most of what is now Germany up to at least the fourth century AD.
In the first century AD, after a series of military campaigns, the Romans were able to conquer what is now most of western and southern Germany from the Germanic and Celtic tribes living there.The Protestant-Catholic conflict reached a climax in the Thirty Years War, where many German territories were devastated.It took 100 years until Germany's population had grown back to prewar level.And in the waning years, it wasn't even able to keep the peace between its two most powerful constituents at the time, Austria and Prussia, whose rivalry would dominate the fate of German speaking areas for most of the 19th century.A period of religious reform and scientific discovery was marked by the 1517 publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses in Wittenberg, which started the Protestant Reformation.
The Holy Roman Empire was - as Voltaire famously quipped - neither Roman nor holy nor an empire.