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Introduction Though Catalonia has formed part of Spain for nearly 300 years, Catalans only grudgingly admit the fact.

However, although from the reign of Carlos I onwards the Catalan-Aragonese Confederation was ruled by the same monarch as Spain, technically it was still an independent state with its own laws, and when it traded with the rest of the peninsula customs taxes were levied.In desperation the inhabitants of what was to become Catalonia turned to Charlemagne, the powerful Frankish leader for help in return for pledging allegiance to the Carolingian Empire.Girona was retaken in 785 and Barcelona in 801, and the province of the Spanish March, a buffer zone between Christian France and Muslim Hispania, was born.In 711, the Moors crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and swept through the Iberian Peninsula.They captured Barcelona in 717 and then crossed the Pyrenees and went as far as Poitiers before being checked by the Franks.

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Having received no military support from the Franks, Count Borrell II declared independence, and although not recognised by the Franks until 1258, an independent state called Catalonia was born.

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