To my surprise, I found that this paper had completely ignored the heat that the nearby volcano (Figure 2) would have applied to the formation during the alleged one million years since its eruption.
Uniformitarians, of course, do not want to accept that idea, so they have instead tried to re-interpret the RATE data in order to retain their long ages of geologic time.
Since it would only take less than 50,000 years to reach equilibrium from a world with no C-14 at the start, this always seemed like a good assumption.
That is until careful measurements revealed a significant disequalibrium. All the present C-14 would accumulate, at present rates of production and build up, in less than 30,000 years!
The critic wanted to increase the helium-leak age to over a billion years by having the formation be very much cooler in the past than it is at present. He depended heavily on a 1986 paper in the by geoscientists from three US universities.
They modelled past temperatures in the formation using argon data in the borehole as a constraint.
Thus, no one even considers using carbon dating for dates in this range.